Rahapara

This is the nichest village in Bangladesh


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Paragraph-2: Paragraph list

A Tea Stall

A tea stall is a small shop where ready tea is served to the customers. It mainly sits at Railway or Bus station. Besides, It is found at bazers, a factory or a launch ghat. A tea stall is not well furnished. A tea stall is of great importance to passers-by, day laborers, workers, official and political leaders. Tea is a popular drink. It refreshes body and mind together. There is an oven, a pan of milk to prepare tea and decorated with simple chairs, tables and benches. Hot tea, biscuits, bread, banana, betel leaf (পান), cigarettes are sold there. However, a tea stall opens early in the morning and closed at late night. There is a boy to serve tea to the customers and a manager who sits behind the cash box and receives money from the customers. While taking tea the customers discuss familial, political, economic and social affairs (ঘটনা). As they discuss political affairs very much like our national parliament (জাতীয় সংসদ) staying at a tea stall, it is called a mini Sangsad. After taking tea, they quarrel (ঝগড়া) with each other about their saying things. Always it looks like crowded and noisy. In fact, a tea stall is a favorite option to all kinds of people.

 

A Tea Stall

Tea is as sweet as idle gossip and as adhesive as the prattle of folk politics. A tea stall, as such, is a place of immense public interest. It is, as it were, the parliament of the common public. In the by gone days, people gathered in a tea stall in the morning and in the evening, especially in the winter. Now, what summer, what winter, the tea stall attracts almost everybody in all seasons alike. Sometimes storms blow in a tea-pot, sometimes the stall becomes overcrowded with people bored with daily chores, seeking leisure in the soceal get-together. Therefore, there is no denying that tea drunk at home is different from or inferior to , as some might opine tea drunk in a tea stall, the latter being the tea spiced with an exceptional taste. The price of the tea drink in a tea stall may not be different from that drunk at home, but the value is.

A Sun -Set Scene

A sun-set scene is a regular phenomenon of our daily life, but it becomes exceptionally enjoyably during a cool, calm evening. The beauty of the sun-set scene also depends on the surrounding, sitting or standing in which the beholder enjoys it. It is perhaps most enjoyable when seen from the bank of a river or a sea, the scene seems to be a miraculous one. As the sun descends down the horizon, showering the last reddish over the green quivering leaves of trees and plants, nature becomes clad with a heavenly garment of lively color  Patches of clouds, vermilion by the rainbow of colors  like pieces of diamond. In such an atmosphere the mind finds it easier to settle into spiritual devotion.

 

 

A Moonlit Night

A moonlit night is a remarkable occasion for a beauty seeker who has an aesthetic thiest for poetic feeling. In a moonlit night, nature looks as though it were a dreamland full of life but painted on a coloured canvas. Things, as a whole, seem to be a living poem harmoniously unifying a huge variety of subgects. The moon, as it drifts along in the sky, darts its romantic look at the earth, tinging it with a vavcious glow of spiced colouf. The night is calm. Seen from a high place, the flora together with the edging waterline or river, look as if they were resting peacefully. All this catches the imagination, that is why it arouses some imagination. The deemly glowing pieces of flocculent clouds fixed to the ceiling of the sky snstches the mind away. Such a night is worth enjoying foregoing the opportunity of sleep.

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Traffic Jam

Traffic jam is not an uncommon phenomenon our country, especially in the Dhaka city. Traffic jam, by definition, is the huddling up of too many vehicles in a specific place of a highway or in a street, with the result that the vehicles clog up , so to say, and cannot move ahead. This crests a great problem. People who are busy on urgent business miss their timetable. In the morning, for example, many people fail to attend their workplaces in time. The transportation of goods get delayed. Perhaps the worst consequence is duffers by patients being carried to hospitals or clinics. The mental and physical sufferings, too, are no less important. Rickshaw pullers and baby-taxi drivers, who usually live from hand to mouth, undergo a great suffering for the loss of their time. Again, not that only the street conditions and rule-violating behavior of drivers cause it. Above all, we do not want to suffer so much.

 

 

Kitchen Garden

A garden is a place where flowers are grown. A kitchen garden is a place where different types of vegetables are grown. Usually a kitchen garden is situated by the side of a kitchen. A fence is made round the kitchen garden so that cattle and other animals can not spoil the plants. My kitchen garden is situated near the kitchen. I spend a lot of time there. I usually spend my leisure period there. I sow vegetables seeds, take care of plants and spread insecticides and manures and so on.

I cultivate pumkin, guard, pepper, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflowers and other vegetables there. I grow seasonal vegetables there. The vegetables do a lot of help to my family. They meet the need of our family. Sometimes, i sell some of the vegetables in the market and make money. The kitchen garden gives me a lot of pleasure and enjoyment. Whenever i in to the kitchen garden, i forgot the sorrows and sufferings. Above all, the kitchen garden saves a lot of money.

 

 

 

Television

In the modern times there is hardly any person who has not heard of or seen a television set. So, it is not very import to define it, nor is it necessary to describe how it functions. This strange invention of science is now-a-days the most widely used media of communication of propaganda. Not only that, it is a part and parcel of our daily life as it is inseparably limked with recrearion. It broadcasts dramas, movies, aducational programmes, commedy series, documentaries, and other attractive packages. It buils consciousness among people  about the current affairs of the country as well as the world. That is about the satellite TV which has caught on at present. Unquestionably, it has done much good to us by exposing us to the culters of various societies. But still it is contended that much of the preaching and cultural attack is very harmful to our society.

 

 

 

The Postman

The postman is a very important person in our society, though he does not enjoy a good social status. He is very close to the community in which he lives. His daily life is full of work. He gets up very early in the morning and starts his work sorting out letters, money orders, parcels etc. According to their place of destination or as he thinks convenient. The sorting activity over, he then puts on his uniform and sets out on his daily round to distribute the letters, parcels etc, to the right addresses. During the course of his distribution activity, however, he also collects out outgoing letters or percels or money orders, in the afternoon, he again starts sorting out outgoing letters or parcels or money orders. In the course of his professional duty, he builds up familiar social relationships with people, which is why he is a very popular figure in his locality.

My College Common Room

Man is a social being. He lives in a society where he has to interact with other people. The notion of society where he has to interact with other people. The notion of society is so much instilled in human mind that people behave as if they were in a society even when they are grouped in a company or any other instituions. A college common room is, as it were, a full-fledged society within the campus. It has some chairs and tables, tables, table tennis instruments, carrom boards, and other essentioal things. Recently a television set has been bought. There are facilities for all famous dailies and weeklies. Sometimes we gossip, sometimes we enjoying newspapers or magazines or the TV. Fortunately, however, any political discussion is prohibited in our common room, which, undoubtedly, ensures a peaceful environment and a friendly atmosphere in the common room.

My Neighbors

Birds of the same feather flock together-goes the saying. This adage hokiest true in connection with man’s living habit in most of the cases. But the neighborhood of mine, at least, is an exception. I live in the midst of a variety of peoples arriving from various cultures and social classes. To begin with, my father is a government official, having a mediocre financial ability. Next to our door lives a family most of the members of which are artist. The family behind our home is well known as a political family. Again, the family living on the left side of our house is a well-to-do business family. On the right, however, lives a writer. Amidst all of them we are happy indeed. We are on good social terms with almost all of them. Often we meet together in social functions and family ceremonies. Now I believe I am a product of my neighborhood.

My College

After long ten years of schooling, a life of confinement and limited liberty with somewhat suffocating experience of strict parental administration, when I stepped into the college life, it seemed as if I were promoted to a new realm of life. Gradually I began to get exposed to functions, new friends, social get-togethers, cultural functions, new curricula, and above all, new feelings. Thus I began to feel a sense of belonging to my own college. My college, I am convinced, has added identity. Now not only I do not go to college regularly , but  also get involved in, a part from the academic activities, various extracurricular activities including social works. It is due to the contribution of my college that I have gained socio political consciousness as well as new insights. My college, including our common room, teachers, classmates, playground, the whole campus, is very dear to me.

A Railway Platform

The word is a transient rest-house in which we all are strangers, This is perhaps best analogized by a railway platform, which is characterized by short-lived sojourn of people coming in and going out. The platform may be a special cynosure of social scientists of social psychologists because of its peculiar atmosphere doe to the co-existence of people of different cultures and temperaments, but it is no less attractive to a curious mind interested in human interactions. Every moment, the railway platform, which is typically a vast place protected by a high hanging brick-built roof, bubbles over with people of all kinds rich, poor, Impoverished and goods. They being strangers to one another, people behave strangely, while sometimes they do not behave at all. They are a crowd of people having different destinations. That is why one, once in that place, feels utterly lonely among those nameless crowds. Most of the time the bad feeling is aggravated by the nasty and unhygienic environment. Now a days, however, pick pockets are a big threat for passengers.

A Winter Morning

The morning shows the day perhaps this saying is most appropriate in connection with a winter morning which, almost invariantly, is enwrapped in fog and smog, deterring sunshine so as to make one feel as darkness. The morning, thought of figuratively, can be described as the womb of the short lived cool day that will follow. A walk in such a morning gives an uncanny feeling of exotic pleasure-pleasure felt form outside the body. Eyesight fails any distance. The sun, as a result, if seen at all, is seen to be very effortful peeping through the heavenly curtain of smog. People and children, particularly those living in the villagers, rush around in search of a “slice” of sunshine, which they consider sweeter than honey. Some lazy fellows, however, ruminate the remnants of their last-night’s dreams enwrapping themselves obstinately in blankets. As far as I am concerned, a winter morning is unnecessarily too long.

A Rainy Day

Torrential rains every now and then with invigoration coolness and rhythmic sounds, damp streets, fields, and houses, lively leaves and buds of trees and plants these are some of the enchanting characteristics of a rainy day. To save the flora and fauna of nature  from the scorching heat of summer, rains come down on earth with a refreshing touch. Nature, so long suffocated by heat and vapidity, gets rejuvenated. These, however, are the aesthetic aspects of the feeling one has in such a day. A rainy day, on the other hand, is no less a nuisance, if considered from a social and economic point of view. People, for example, do not feel much excited and secured when, due to incessant rain and consequent inundation of localities; they not only cannot go out to work. Such a day, consequently, creates a mixed reaction in people’s minds. But when, it is beyond doubt, the aftermath of the rains is neither flood nor water logging, and it does not cause any financial tension, then the day becomes a unique time of enjoyment indeed.

 

Physical Exercise

Physical exercise means the deliberate movement of various parts of the body in a systematic way to help the body function properly. It, taken regularly and according to rule, helps and blood circulation work naturally and well, prevents many fatal diseases which, once having attacked by, is difficult to get cured, gives the exercise-taker mental briskness and work stamina, and, as is widely believe, ensures longevity. It is of verious forms, each suiting specific purpose, sometimes specific age, and season. Walking, jogging, swimming, weight-lifting-these are some popular forms of exercise. In fact, all types of games, played regularly, serve as best forms of exercise, Exercise should be taken by people of all ages, by both men and women. There is, so to say, life in it, if not livelihood.

 

 

My Childhood

My childhood, like everybody’s, is full of events worth remembering. It is the pillar-stone on which stands my hole being-imagination, memory, fancy, and the historical foundation of the self. Childhood- be it pleasurable or sorrowful is always very attractive, as though, an addiction. And the one with a rich memory is more attractive. Consequently, I, who have lost my parents, love and affection, and the carefree life in my very childhood, feel an inevitable nostagia when I think about it. Standing on the threshold of the alien world of adulthood, when I look back through my puerile imagination at my by gone days, I feel through thinking, and think through feeeling, my eyes filled with tears. Oh, how nice those days where! A wholeness of freedom within a limit, the carefree pastime with brothers and sisters and parents and nature and pets, sensing the pleasure of live and affection. Sometimes, now, I cannot but wonder why ever I head to lose that childhood. But alas, nature works her won way.

 

Teenage Leaders of Tomorrow

There are galore organizations around municipality that bed usurped on the commencement of doing field ethnic run business. This headroom Y&I is presenting 1° Commencement, a level for offspring, vigorous voltage body who requirement to inform and make the juvenile of Dhaka and put them on the flight towards youth-led usage. Judgment a faithful administration that is consenting to put a lot of labor into helping early and needy grouping Bangladesh, is demanding. 1° Opening is a non-profit methodicalness that aims to eliminate a disagreement in the lives of small group in Bangladesh. It operates independently of any churchly, governmental or advert affiliations. The members of this methodicalness are overzealous most what they do and are fascinated in making a modification to this land. Their passionateness is near contaminating as they motivate and stimulate others to develop their conduce.
The epithet ‘1° Initiative’ runs along with their motto ‘small change’. A 1° replace is a pocketable replace yet it is determining to those who penury it. “All it takes is that 1° of a occurrence to travel ice into irrigate, that 1° of a occurrence to change a mind”, says members of the orderliness. The signification of their identify parallels with the significance of the alter they are and have initiated.
“It all begins with a assay. The probability of insolvency, the danger of unpredictability, the risk of swing things in people’s safekeeping – especially when it comes to those animal grouping beneath 25. For us, it was never a danger. It was belief, a vision, a splendid concept. It began with an melody, evolved into an activity and now receives symbol as a brand”, says Sabhanaz Rashid Diya, miscarry, statesman secretary and authority.
The taradiddle of how the opening started dates way rearmost to June 2006. Let’s let Sabhanaz Rashid Diya of 1° Beginning group assert the taradiddle

Beautiful Bangladesh

The country where I live in is Bangladesh. It’s a small but density populated country. About 135 million of people live within its 147570 square kilometers area. It got its independence from Pakistani rule in 1971 through a blood-shed liberation war of nine month. I love my motherland not only because I born and brought up here but, because it its evergreen nature, beauties six season, it’s flowing rivers, its verities of birds and so on.

My motherland is gifted with very fertile soil. Its fertility is maintained as rivers carry alluvium to them. So, plenty of rice, jute, sugarcane, potato, tobacco, pulse, oil, seed, vegetable, spices, tea, etc are grown here. Our seasonal fruits like is mango, jack fruit, litchi, guava, black berry, pineapple, banana, coconut, water melon etc are great attraction to the people of home and aboard. Our six season appear to is with six different look. Each of them has an identical character. Spring is the best of them and termed as king of season. Hot and dryness of summer is sub-situated by its sweet and fleshy fruits. Coldness of winter is balanced by the date juice and different vegetables like Cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, carrot, radish, brinjal, bean etc.
In autumn the fields look like a vast sheet of gold due to the ripe paddy of golden color. The rainy season appears with a different attraction. Sometimes it’s rains for days together. The fields, canals, tanks and rivers are full of water. The nature looks like a vast sheet of silver. Moving around by country boats is of great interest in this season. Our water reservoirs are full varieties of tasty fishes.
We are fortunate that we have several world heritage sites. Sundarbans, the only mangrove forest of the world is one of them. We have the longest sea beach of 155 Kms at Cox’s Bazar. Our national economy is mostly depending upon agriculture. Little development occurred here in industrial sector. Due its poor literacy rate national progress and development is very slow. Acute unemployment caused us to be drowned in corruption, violence and social crime. Even then people of different religion live here with peace and harmony. I feel very proud when the foreign visitors praise our hospitality.

Load Shedding

Load shedding is the act of discontinuing current flow over some selected areas to reduce the pressure over the generators or to compensate lack of sufficient current. We the people of Bangladesh are so much familiar to it from our birth that we don’t need any definition to understand it. But nowadays it is at it’s extreme. Recently it has become a nightmare for the people at every level of society in Bangladesh. Sometimes there are load shedding of more than twenty four hours. We can’t sleep in day time, can’t read at night, and can’t get news at morning for it – we can do almost nothing for it. Children, old persons and the students are the very sufferers of this curse.

It seems that there is no end to it. Industries, markets, farm areas and everything become inspirational for load shedding. Our agriculture system is somewhat broken down for lack of electricity because the farmers can’t get water in dry reason. For this much lack of electricity it seems that the ghosts has taken control over our country. If we can’t stop these ghosts, there will be a very sorry ending to our country and no ending to the approaching sufferings. This is said that such crisis must dealt by the government and the people of the country. But for some years they two are working together, energy bulbs are being used in houses, people are no more wasting current as before, electric heaters are no more being used widely, governments are building new plants, but the crisis is getting bigger and bigger. No government are keeping their oaths – or may be is notable for too much problems.

So, now the problem of electricity has almost become personal and must be dealt by ourselves. In our country a better solution is solar electricity. Nowadays it costs less but not that less like our yearly regular electricity bills. A more efficient solution is bio-gas that can be used not only for electricity but also for cooking. We have many talented engineers in our country and they should look at this sector and make more efficient and affordable machines. We can also produce electricity from air if these engineers come forward. Nuclear electricity plant is long lasting after installment but that is very expensive for our country and maintenance cost is even more – so we better don’t think about that. Now it is the very time to get out of dreams and deal the problem ourselves and we must cooperate with the government to solve this problem now. As the electricity is the heart of civilization, we have to work hard to sustain this civilization, to sustain ourselves.

 

 

 


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Paragraph-2: Basic Paragraph Structure

In many languages, the fundamental unit of composition is the paragraph.  A paragraph consists of several sentences that are grouped together.  This group of sentences together discuss one main subject.   In U.S. formal academic English, paragraphs have three principal parts.  These three parts are the topic sentence, body sentences, and the concluding sentence.  We will also talk briefly about details in paragraphs.
The Topic Sentence

A topic sentence usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph; that is, it is usually the first sentence in a formal academic paragraph.  (Sometimes this is not true, but as you practice writing with this online lesson site, please keep to this rule unless you are instructed otherwise.)  Not only is a topic sentence the first sentence of a paragraph, but, more importantly, it is the most general sentence in a paragraph.  What does “most general” mean?  It means that there are not many details in the sentence, but that the sentence introduces an overall idea that you want to discuss later in the paragraph. 

For example, suppose that you want to write a paragraph about the natural landmarks of your hometown.   The first part of your paragraph might look like this:

       My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.

(Notice how the first sentence begins with “My hometown…” a few spaces to the right of the paragraph edge.  This is an indentation.  All paragraphs in English MUST begin with an indentation.)

Note how the first sentence, My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing geographical features,is the most general statement. This sentence is different from the two sentences that follow it, since the second and third sentences mention specific details about the town’s geography, and are not general statements.

Here are some examples of sentences that cannot be used as topic sentences. Can you figure out why they are inappropriate? 

    1. My hometown is famous because it is located by Wheaton River, which is very wide, and because it is built near an unusually steep hill called Wheaton Hill.
    1. There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission and two reasons why others like cars with manual transmission.
  1. Clouds are white.

The problem with sentence #1 is that it contains too many details. Topic sentences are general, and details should appear later in the paragraph. A better topic sentence would be like the one mentioned above, My hometown is famous for several amazing geographical features.

Sentence #2 is not appropriate as a topic sentence because it mentions two topics, not just one. Paragraphs are usually about one main thing and so their topic sentences should also be about only one main thing.

The problem with sentence #3 is that it is toogeneral. It is also very boring! Would you like to read a paragraph with this topic sentence? Most people would not.

We can rewrite sentences #2 and #3 in the following ways to make it better:

    • There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission. 

     

    OR (in a different paragraph):

      • There are two reasons why some people like cars with manual transmission.
    • The shapes of clouds are determined by various factors.

    Supporting Sentences

    Consider again the above-mentioned, short paragraph:

           My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.

    (Again, note how this paragraph is indented on the first line, about five or seven spaces in from the left-hand edge of the paragraph. Always remember to indent your paragraphs!)

    When a reader reads a topic sentence, such as My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing natural features,a question should usually appear in the reader’s mind.  In this case, the question should be like, “What are the natural features that make Wheaton famous?”   The reader should then expect that the rest of the paragraph will give an answer to this question. 

    Now look at the sentences after the topic sentence.  We can see that the second sentence in the paragraph,  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful,indeed gives an answer to this question. That is, the second sentence gives some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is a famous town. Similarly, we can see that the third sentence also gives some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is famous by giving another example of an “amazing natural feature,” in this case, Wheaton Hill.

    The second and third sentences are called supporting sentences.  They are called “supporting” because they “support,” or explain, the idea expressed in the topic sentence.  Of course, paragraphs in English often have more than two supporting ideas.   The paragraph above is actually a very short paragraph.  At minimum, you should have at least five to seven sentences in your paragraph.  Here we can see our paragraph about Wheaton with a few more supporting sentences in bold font:

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old.

    In this lesson, we will talk about supporting sentences again in the section, “Details in Paragraphs,” below.
    The Concluding Sentence

    In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented.  This is the concluding sentence.  You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse.

    You can understand concluding sentences with this example.  Consider a hamburger that you can buy at a fast-food restaurant.*  A hamburger has a top bun (a kind of bread), meat, cheese, lettuce, and other elements in the middle of the hamburger, and a bottom bun. Note how the top bun and the bottom bun are very similar.  The top bun, in a way, is like a topic sentence, and the bottom bun is like the concluding sentence.  Both buns “hold” the meat, onions, and so on.  Similarly, the topic sentence and concluding sentence “hold” the supporting sentences in the paragraph.  Let’s see how a concluding sentence (in bold font) might look in our sample paragraph about Wheaton:

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

    Notice how the concluding sentence, These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place,summarizes the information in the paragraph.  Notice also how the concluding sentence is similar to, but not exactly the same as, the topic sentence. 

    Not all academic paragraphs contain concluding sentences, especially if the paragraph is very short.  However, if your paragraph is very long, it is a good idea to use a concluding sentence.
    Details in Paragraphs

    The short paragraph in this lesson is a fairly complete paragraph, but it lacks details.  Whenever possible, you should include enough details in your paragraphs to help your reader understand exactly what you are writing about.  In the paragraph about Wheaton, three natural landmarks are mentioned, but we do not know very much about them.  For example, we could add a sentence or two about Wheaton river concerning HOW wide it is or WHY it is beautiful.  Consider this revision (and note the additional details in bold):

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is 175 feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind.  In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow.  Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.  Even though it is steep, climbing this hill is not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs.  There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away.  The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old.  These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

    If we wished, we could also add more details to the paragraph to describe the third natural feature of the area, the Big Old Tree.

    Why are details important?  Consider the example of the hamburger, mentioned above.*  If the hamburger buns are the topic and concluding sentences, then the meat, the cheese, the lettuce, and so on are the supporting details.  Without the food between the hamburger buns, your hamburger would not be very delicious!  Similarly, without supporting details, your paragraph would not be very interesting. 
    A Note on Formality.    In addition to having a particular kind of structure,  academic paragraphs (and multi-paragraph essays, which will be topic of another lesson) are different from “ordinary writing” (such as letter writing) in that certain kinds of expressions are not allowed.  For example, in formal essays, you should not use contractions such as don’t or aren’t.  Instead, you should write out the words in full, for example, do not and are not.

    Also, in formal essays you should avoid the first and second person.  That is, do not use the pronouns I or you.  The pronouns we and us are sometimes used in formal essays in some major fields, but in general you should not use these unless you are certain that they are customary in your field  and/or your professor allows them.  It is safer simply to use the third person.


    TOO INFORMAL
    (Do not use)
    ACCEPTABLE
    don’t do not
    doesn’t does not
    aren’t are not
    weren’t were not
    can’t cannot
    couldn’t could not
    won’t will not

    Now, if you have understood this lecture, click here to go to Exercise #1.

    Click here to return to the IEI TOEFL-prep Writing Main Menu

     


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    Story-1:Ten Secrets To Write Better Stories

    Writing isn’t easy, and writing a good story is even harder.

    I used to wonder how Pixar came out with such great movies, year after year. Then, I found out a normal Pixar film takes six years to develop, and most of that time is spent on the story.

    In this article, you’ll learn ten secrets about how to write a story, and more importantly, how to write a story that’s good.

    How to Write a Story

    Everything I Know About How to Write a Story

    Since I started The Write Practice a few years ago, I’ve been trying to wrap my head around this question, how to write a good story. I’ve read books and blog posts on writing, taken classes, asked dozens of authors, and, of course, written stories myself.

    The following ten steps are a distillation of everything I’ve learned about writing a good story. I hope it makes writing your story a little easier, but more than that, I hope it challenges you to step deeper into your own exploration of how to write a story.

    1. Write In One Sitting

    Write the first draft of your story in as short a time as possible. If you’re writing a short story, try to write it in one sitting. If you’re writing a novel, try to write it in one season (three months).

    Don’t worry too much about plotting or outlining beforehand. You can do that once you know you have a story to tell in the first place. Your first draft is a discovery process. You are like an archeologist digging an ancient city out of the clay. You might have a few clues about where your city is buried beforehand, but you don’t know what it will look like until it’s unearthed.

    All that’s to say, get digging!

    2. Develop Your Protagonist

    Stories are about protagonists, and if you don’t have a good protagonist, you won’t have a good story. The essential ingredient for every protagonist is that they must make decisions. Victor Frankl said, “A human being is a deciding being.” Your protagonist must make a decision to get herself into whatever mess she gets into in your story, and likewise, she must decide to get herself out of the mess.

    To further develop your protagonist, use other character archetypes like the villain, the protagonist’s opposite, or the fool, a sidekick character that reveals the protagonist’s softer side.

    3. Create Suspense and Drama

    To create suspense, set up a dramatic question. A dramatic question is something like, “Is he going to make it?” or, “Is she going to get the man of her dreams?” By putting your protagonist’s fate in doubt, you make the reader ask, What happens next?

    Note: To do this well, you need to carefully restrict the flow of information to the reader. Nothing destroys drama like over-sharing.

    4.  Show, Don’t Tell

    Honestly, the saying “show, don’t tell” is overused. However, when placed next to the step above, it becomes very effective.

    When something interesting happens in your story that changes the fate of your character, don’t tell us about it. Show the scene! Your readers have a right ro see the best parts of the story play out in front of them. Show the interesting parts of your story, and tell the rest.

    5. Write Good Dialogue

    Good dialogue comes from two things: intimate knowledge of your characters and lots of rewriting. Each character must have a unique voice, and to make sure your characters all sound different, read each character’s dialogue and ask yourself, “Does this sound like my character?” If your answer is no, then you have some rewriting to do.

    Also, with your speaker tags, try not to use anything but “he said” and “she said.” Speaker tags like “he exclaimed,” “she announced,” and “he spoke vehemently” are distracting and unnecessary. The occasional “he asked” is fine, though.

    6. Write About Death

    Think about the last five novels you read. In how many of them did a character die? Good stories often involve death. Harry Potter, The Hunger Games, Charlotte’s WebThe Lord of the Rings, and more all had main characters who died. Death is the universal theme because every person who lives will one day die. Tap the power of death in your storytelling.

    7. Edit Like a Pro

    Most professional writers write three drafts or more. The first draft is often called the “vomit draft” or the “shitty first draft.” Don’t share it with anyone! Your first draft is your chance to explore your story and figure out what it’s about.

    Your second draft isn’t for polishing, although many new writers will try to polish as soon as they can to clean up their embarrassing first draft. Instead, the second draft is meant for major structural changes and for clarifying the plot and characters of your novel or the key ideas of your non-fiction book.

    The third draft is for deep polishing. Now is when everything starts to gel. This is the fun part! But until you write the first two drafts, polishing is probably a waste of your time.

    8. Know the Rules, Then Break Them

    Good writers know all the rules and follow them. Great writers know all the rules and break them. However, the best writers don’t break the rules arbitrarily. They break them because their stories require a whole new set of rules. Respect the rules, but remember that you don’t serve the rules. You serve your stories.

    9. Defeat Writer’s Block

    The best way to defeat writers block is to write. If you’re stuck, don’t try to write well. Don’t try to be perfect. Just write.

    Sometimes, to write better stories, you have to start by taking the pressure off and just writing.

    10. Share Your Work

    You write better when you know someone will soon be reading what you’ve written. If you write in the dark, no one will know if you aren’t giving your writing everything you have. But when you share your writing, you face the possibility of failure. This will force you to write the best story  you possibly can.


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    CV-1: General Purpose CV Builder

    Comprehensive CV creator including CV builder, templates, help & tips

    In today’s competitive and fast-moving job market, you only have 30 seconds to impress the employer with your CV, so give yourself the best chance of securing the interview. By following a few simple rules, you can make sure your CV works for you right from the start and maximise your chances to stand out from the other applicants. Start now

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    • Print, upload or e-mail as applications require.
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    CV

    Writing a CV for the job you want is not as difficult as you may think. Follow the easy steps in the unique CV Builder and templates to write and download a perfect CV. START NOW

    We want you to know how to write a CV that will impress an employer. That’s why cvwriting.net produced a CV builder with targeted assistance, tips, guides and examples that help you at every stage. Whether you are looking to write a general purpose CV popular with employers, or you are an IT specialist, graduate or professional, we show you how to write a CV that can dramatically increase your chances of securing the interview. START NOW

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